C.G. Jung Institute, Zürich, Küsnacht
The Alumni Association  •   A Community of Analysts


volume  1  .  summer 2014


Editors's Notes                                                                          Maureen O'Donnell                Announcements: Graduation at the Institute                                                                        
• President's Message                                                                                Kim Arndt

• Brain Imaging and Complexes                              Philip Bechtel & Michael Escamilla

• Digitization of the Bildarchiv                                                  Nancy Robinson-Kime

• Side by Side: Interview with Pat  Berry                                    Nancy Robinson-Kime

• Book Review:                                                                             Maureen O'Donnell
  Four Eternal Women, Molton & Sikes
  Toni Wolff's Forms, Fitzgerald

• Poetry:
  For a New Beginning (O'Donahue)

                                                                                         volume  1 .   summer  2014

Cover picture is used with the permission of the Bildarchiv .  Copyright by C. G. Jung Institute Zürich  

Editor's  Notes…                                                                                                                                                                                        
Welcome to our first volume of the Alumni Association newsletter.  I am proud to be its first editor, but this is truly a collaborative endeavor.  All the board members have put in countless hours in planning and creating this newsletter and the website.

Each newsletter will have a theme.  Our first newsletter’s theme is “beginnings”. All beginnings are fragile with anticipation and hope. We begin the Alumni Association with the hope of new parents and the visions of possibilities. By sending in your own articles, poetry, book reviews, and announcements you can participate in the growth of the Alumni Association and its newsletter. 

If you are a new graduate and have a thesis you wish to condense into an article of 500-1,000 works, send it in!  If you are an alumni and have a book or some other publication you wish to condense into an article of the same length, send it in! If you have an idea for a theme for the newsletter, let me know.  It is not necessary for your submission to incorporate the theme. Send to

In our first volume of the newsletter, Kim Arndt, Alumni Association President, describes how the Association came to be--its exquisitely fragile beginnings initiated in her imagination and emerged from the vibrant energy of five Zurich-trained analysts.

This newsletter explores other beginnings of analytical psychology. We learn from Board member Dr. Nancy Robinson-Kime about the historical significance combined with the technological challenge involved in the vitally important picture archive of the C.G Jung Institute, Küsnacht. The cover image above is from the picture archive and is featured throughout this issue.

We also present Pat Berry, graduate of the Jung Institute, senior Jungian analyst, leader, and co-founder of Archetypal Psychology in her interview with Nancy Robinson-Kime. In an elegant, sensitive, and empathic interview, the history provided by Pat Berry helps us to understand the historical background, foundation, and beginnings of Jungian analysis. There is a portion of  the text of that interview here, plus a link to the entire interview.  Be sure to tell your colleagues about this interview.  They need to be a member of the Alumni Association to access the entire interview.

Analytical psychology began with Jung's Association Experiment and the understanding of the plurality of the psyche and the autonomous complex. Recent graduates, Dr. Philip Bechtel and Dr. Michael Escamilla, augment Jung's research with their exploration of brain imagery connected to the complex. They share their  findings in an exciting and informative summary of their thesis work (2013).

I review two books about Toni Wolff’s Structural Forms of the Feminine Psyche (1956):  Four Eternal Women: Toni Wolff Revisited--A Study in Opposites (2011) and Toni Wolff's Forms: She Moves in Circles (2011). A review of Toni Wolff and her writings take us back to the beginnings of Jungian psychology and its unique insight into the feminine. Wolff's Structural Forms elucidates the inner feminine in her multivariate, animating dimensions. Wolff revitalized this life-giving archetype whose mystique and power had been psychically exiled by the dominance of masculine consciousness.

We conclude with a poem by John O’Donahue, “For a New Beginning”, an apt message about the genesis of this new Alumni Association and its dawning possibilities.

We will publish a bi-annual newsletter for alumni members. For our Winter newsletter, we have chosen the theme, “Choices”.  Please consider writing an article or poem about “choices” for our next newsletter. Send all submissions to or  Submissions should be sent on a Word or Pages document.
-Maureen O'Donnell-
Graduation at the Institute
It’s time for the summer graduation ceremony at the Institute!  This year the ceremony will be held on Friday, July 4 at 4:30pm.  It is hoped that by moving the graduation from Saturday to Friday, more people will be able to attend.  The ceremony will be followed immediately by the traditional end of semester party.
The Alumni are looking forward to welcoming the new graduates as fellow Diplomates of the C.G. Jung Institute, Zürich, Küsnacht.  It is expected that there will be several new analysts swelling our ranks.  Each one has much to be proud of, and each has worked very hard towards the moment of graduation.  We wish them the very best.
The Alumni Association website will devote special space to the graduates, listing each by name along with the title of his or her thesis.  There will also be photos commemorating this important occasion.  Be sure to check the website for these new additions.
P R E S I D E N T ' S  M E S S A G E

"b e g i n n i n g s"     

      Kim Arndt

Hello and welcome!  After months of steady preparation, research, and the agony and ecstasy of creation, the Alumni Association has been established and is now on its journey of growth and actualization!  Yet, the success and benefits of the Alumni Association depends on the participation of its members.

Since its launch this year, I have spoken with many analysts in the U.S. and Europe whose imaginations have created a diverse array of myths about how this Association came into being.  I would like to tell the tale as it actually happened…

Once upon a time there was a 2012 graduate of the English Block Program. She found herself in her office in Mesa, Arizona, with her new diploma framed with honor on her wall.  As the weeks and months went by, she began to long for the dear colleagues with whom she had trained.  She and her classmates had shared in a challenging, exhilarating and exasperating process of personal development, and now she was alone in the Arizona wilderness.  More colleagues graduated, and they expressed a similar longing for contact with their colleagues.

From this space of loss and uncertainty grew inspiration!  I imagined a new place where all alumni could have contact with each other regardless of where they resided in the world.  This new place would also serve as the setting where new graduates would be welcomed into a body of alumni who would gladly receive them.  An idea was born, and in April of 2013, work began to start this Alumni Association.   Carol Smith (2013) and I wrote the Curatorium to announce that we were creating an Association for all of the graduates of the Institute, no matter when they graduated, and the Curatorium responded with encouragement.   It quickly became evident that during the past 65+ years, there emerged many, many graduates from the Institute, whose training programs--in English and German--were different iterations of the current English Block and who also longed for an Association--a place for interaction, news, and camaraderie.

Thankfully, more graduates felt the call to create, and these Alums are the Board of Officers: Maureen O’Donnell, Nancy Robinson-Kime, Carol Walnum, and Philip Kime.

One purpose of the Alumni Association is “to provide continuity in the continuing development, education and maturation” of the graduates.  Take a moment and look inside.  What is your continuing development, education and maturation as an analyst?  How can this Association assist that process?

Do you feel libido for your fellow alumni, no matter when you graduated? Or, for your former classmates and for alumni-colleagues that you have met since graduation?  This is an opportunity for you to shape something, to plant a seed that is without a definite course of development, and still in the nascent phase of its being.

In this beginning phase, we need to establish connection between the members and the Alumni Association-ties that create exchanges of energy that are vivifying for both.  This establishing of ties is challenging:  on the one hand, graduates of the Zurich Institute are to be found worldwide, among Institutes and Societies, towns and backwoods around the globe.  And yet, creating points of contact and initiating relationship must be done with authenticity and care, by each individual.  The realization and vitality of this endeavor depends upon your participation!

The Board has created a website where analysts may engage in forums, study groups, post events, make referrals, and eventually make meeting in real time possible. There is also this newsletter. 

This newsletter, along with the website, is a way of reaching out to you, hoping to elicit a response from you.  Please try participating and see what happens!

I welcome you and eagerly anticipate your continuing interaction and contribution!
B R A I N   I M A G I N G  
A N D  C O M P L E X E S 

n e w s  f r o m  t e x a s  
Philip Bechtel & Michael Escamilla
   It has now been just over 100 years  since Carl  Jung  and  his  colleagues  identified  a method of detecting  unconscious complexes    using the  Word  Association   Test.     This work, largely  conducted from 1901  to  1906  in the Burghölzli Hospital, not far  from Küsnacht, allowed researchers  to   detect   words which trigger complexes.  From the   identification   of     these “complexes”, Jung was able to largely develop the framework of  “Complex    Psychology”   and, eventually “Analytical Psychology.”  

A better understanding of what complexes are  and  how   they operate, at the  biological  level as well as the experiential level, offers us a chance to ground current theories of Analytical Psychology and to inform further research directions for those studying Analytical Psychology.


"A better understanding of what complexes are and how they operate, at the biological level..."

A particularly exciting research tool now being used to better understand psychological processes is functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).  This allows us to study activation patterns in the brain when a person undergoes a specific psychological task or experience.  Beginning in 2011, we began to investigate how to use this technology to get some insight on what happens when a complex is triggered.  Using the same methodology as in Zurich, we administered the Word Association Test to nine subjects in El Paso, Texas.  Employing formal scientific method, we used fMRI and complex statistics to  identify differences in activation patterns when the brain was processing neutral versus complex words. This allowed us to “visualize” complexes in the brain. 
he main point of the experiment was to see if there was  a biological correlate for complexes.  We were able to see statistically significant differences in several regions of the brain when it was responding to the “trigger” words.    Brain regions that are activated when complexes are triggered are in both right and left hemispheres, as well as in the cerebellum. These are regions known to be involved in multiple levels of functioning – such as processing of emotions (the anterior cingulate region), sentence generation (middle and frontal gyri), language processing (parahippocampus), mirroring systems (postcentral gyrus), and coordination and integration (cerebellum). 
During our work, we were  encouraged to see that a group in Australia had undertaken very similar experiments and had also been able to show functional brain differences triggered by complex words, with similar brain areas involved. Our basic experiments and results are summarized in Dr. Bechtel’s  thesis (2013, Jung Institute, Küsnacht) and will be presented at a scientific meeting on Human Brain Mapping in Hamburg, Germany in June of 2014. Currently, we are writing up our results for scientific publication.  Dr. Bechtel will also be presenting some of these results in lectures at the Jung Institute in Küsnacht this summer.
In addition, our group in El Paso has also correlated EEG performed on the subjects as they were undergoing the Word Association test. These were subjected to computerized processing to create a topographical movie of brain electrical activity responding to complex stimuli. This work was primarily performed by our associate, Dr. Hugo Sandoval, and Dr. Steven Sands of Sands Laboratories.  Due to the complexity of the brain activation patterns and the implication that there is networking between different brain areas, the simultaneous use of fMRI and EEG may offer a more integrated view of complexes from a structural and functional combination.

"This allowed us to 'visualize' complexes in the brain".

With this new research, our hope is that Jungian concepts can now be studied and discussed with other scientists who use imaging to better understand human psychology.  Moreover, tying some of our Jungian concepts to biology and scientific measurement should open the door for us to test specific hypotheses that underlie our understanding of analytical psychology and how it works.  These studies were conducted at Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center in El Paso, Texas, where we are also gearing up to do some treatment outcome studies for patients receiving Jungian-based therapy.  

Biological understanding will never replace the equally scientific approach of documenting and analyzing our internal psychological experiences and processes, but it will hopefully inform our theories and understanding of our psychology and enable us to participate in discussions with our colleagues from other branches of science and psychology as we move along in the 21st century.
I G I T I Z A T I O N  O F  t h e  b i l d a r c h i v                                   
Nancy Robinson-Kime

The Bild or Picture Archive of the C. G.Jung Institute, Zürich has a long history both in its compilation of images dating from 1917 to 1965 and in efforts since that time to preserve this unique resource. A well-known part of this archive is the approximately 4,000 images (paintings, drawings, etc.) of patients whose work with Jung reflect “in content, form, or style the temenos of the analytic process” as well as being a “visual record of Jung’s work with patients” (C. Rost, 1996, "Using the C.G. Jung Picture Archives: An Index of Visual Possibilities"). Potentially less well known are the various efforts at cataloging and preserving this resource beginning with Jolande Jacobi’s initial grouping of slides according to symbolic motifs (trees, houses, snakes), aspects of the individuation process (persona, shadow, anima/animus, Self), and criteria of interpretation (movement, color and number symbolism) to mention a few of the classifications.

The grouping of pictures according to themes amplified specific images and concepts but, in removing pictures from their original series, did not convey the progression of the therapeutic process. To address this issue, Rudolf Michel re-grouped images according to case numbers but did so using an index card system that with the advent of computers would eventually be replaced. By the early 1980’s, under curator Michael Edwards, the additional problem of preserving the original images became pressing. During his tenure, the entire collection was properly stored.  The 4,000 image collection was placed on 35mm slides (in triplicate) to create a reference, lending, and reserve library of images, and a Xerox print catalogue was compiled. By 1989, under curator Cecilia Rost, preparatory work began on creating a “definitive” computer database of images according to various parameters such as case code, date, title and number of picture, age and gender of patient, comments written by and information about the patient, as well as information of the publication or use of images where available. With advances in technology, however, this original data-base became increasingly obsolete, the data accessible only with difficulty, the computer unreliable. From 1997 onwards, various efforts made toward digitizing the images and updating the computer database were subject to funding difficulties alongside increasingly expensive and complicated technology.
In November 2013 the combined efforts of current curator Vicente de Moura, Robert Hinshaw (for many years overseeing the Bildarchiv—succeeded in 2014 by  Ruth Ammann), and the Curatorium led to the purchase of a new computer and scanner to digitize the 4,000 images at a high resolution for both book and slide format. The obsolete data-base, revised and updated by Philip Kime, now has a user friendly format that will include thumb nail pictures of each image and allow for fast, easy access to the archive using multiple classifications. We look forward to an anticipated completion date of Spring 2015 in this current step toward digitizing a resource toward which so many individuals have lent their energies over so many years.
S i d e - b y - S i d e   .   P A T  B E R R Y  I n t e r v i e w
… and the woman, open to him
recognized the One Soon To Be
in the swanand she knew:
what he asked for was something
which, confused in her defending,
could no longer keep from him…

Leda   .   Rilke
Individuation becomes an actuality
by being imaged in a particular…

Defense & Telos in Dreams  .   Berry *
Nancy Robinson-Kime
I met Pat Berry over Skype in her lovely, light-filled home situated on a cove on the Maine coast. We spoke for three hours in an intimate conversation about her life before, during, and after the development of Archetypal Psych-ology and her training at the C.G. Jung Institute in Zürich. Pat was warm, open, and thoughtful; the conversation, poig-nant, personal, alternatingly painful and humorous, with a lot of shared laughter. As we spoke, vital images emerged—the solitary child, drowned girl, burning match and unicorn—illustrating central themes linked to her life, training at the Institute from the mid 1960’s to 1970’s, and the development of Archetypal Psychology. We spoke of not only how the unconscious/ numinous enters (or breaks into) our lives but also how these experiences together make a meaningful whole.  
Pat considered her writings on an imagistic approach to dreams to be her primary contribution to Jungian Psychology; I would add the importance of her painstaking editing 
of the first volumes of Spring Publications that made, for example, von Franz’s work on fairy tales available to an English speaking readership for first time.
“What impresses me is how the stories we [initially] tell ourselves about what is are just so irrelevant! It’s just a way to get us there…” Pat Berry              

However, I would also suggest that when looked at symbolically, the themes reflected in her personal story—passion, a loss of innocence and the experience of death—are fundamental to our ability to develop an analytic-viewpoint and thus have relevance for the field as a whole.

To read the complete interview, click here.
* Berry, Pat. (2008). Echo’s Subtle Body. Putnam, Conn: Spring
Publications. Defense and Telos in Dreams p. 83
B O O K   R E V I E W    
w h a t  a r e  y o u  r e a d i n g ?      


submit reviews to
Four Eternal Women: Toni Wolff Revisited--A study in Opposites
Fisher King Press, 2011

Toni Wolff’s Forms: She Moves in Circles
Xlibris Corporation, 2011
Review by Maureen O'Donnell
These two books examine and expound on Wolff’s work, Structural Forms of the Feminine Psyche (1956).  Antonia "Toni" Wolff is best known for her lifelong relationship with Carl and Emma Jung.  Carl and Toni never discussed their personal relationship with others and destroyed all correspondence there was between them.  The relationship between Emma and Toni was grounded in their shared experience of the cultural bounds for women in the early 20th C. Both were  impassioned by the complexities of the psyche and the feminine soul, in particular. 

Both women navigated the intricacies of the relationship with grace and intelligence while individually developing their interests and scholarly works. It was a complex triangular relationship in which the principles of Jungian psychology emerged.
Wolff significantly contributed to Jung’s conception of the inner life and worked closely with him on his Psychological Types, and his insights into the individuation process.  Toni Wolff was an analyst, writer, teacher and one of the progenitors of feminine psychology. 
In Structural Forms, Wolff describes four archetypes present in the female psyche:  Mother, Amazon, Hetaira, and Medial Woman. Wolff’s main thesis is that woman, as the feminine principle, is the principle of relatedness, and therefore relationships are the container in which her individual growth develops (an English version of Structural Forms can be found on-line at

In Four Eternal Women, each form is broadly examined characterizing both the persona and shadow aspects. An emphasis is placed on finding the forms in popular cultural figures and fictional characters in film and books. The breadth in which the material is presented is outstanding.  There are stories of Aphrodite to Heloise to Eleanor Roosevelt to Barbie! The portrayal of the ways the feminine forms look in relationship to each other,  men, children, and careers is also extensive.
While Four Eternal Women is expansive and serves as a good introduction and popular perusal of the material for the general reader, it is not an in-depth study of Wolff's schema and the relevance these archetypal structures have for women today. For example, included in the section on the Medial Woman is the text of a phone interview with a psychic reader.  But the Medial Woman is more complex than her ability to “channel”.  Wolff says in Structural Forms about the Medial Woman,  “ must not think of parapsychology, although the common medium represents its lowest, i.e. most unconscious level” (p. 11).   In Structural Forms, Wolff emphasizes that the feminine archetypes do not necessarily coincide with one’s outer life, but with the inner forms that lie in the psyche.         

In Toni Wolff’s Forms, Fitzgerald recognizes that the forms are ways of knowing.  One is not just Mother or has motherly qualities, but has a “Matrilineal knowing”.   Fitzgerald also gives the material a more therapeutic understanding by creating clinical vignettes where the pains and sorrows of women’s lives are reflected upon.  She writes, “Wolff believed that resolving the suffering which brings women into therapy depends upon understanding relationships” (p. 13).  It is in the relationship that wounding occurs and understanding the schema of kinship for each feminine form leads to healing.

Fitzgerald created six fictional therapists who explore the feminine forms in hypothetical session with patients. This exploration of the four different archetypal forms requires a circling around the connections and longings in the patient’s life with a mutual reverie for consciousness and integration. Fitzgerald writes about this process with an esteemed devotion. She brings her eco-feminist and multi-cultural understanding to the archetypes and acknowledges that the relational matrix of the feminine reaches beyond personal relationships to the connectivity of all life forms.

Fitzgerald uses dreams and active imagination to create a work that penetrates the psyche. While reading her book I had a dream where some women I have known in my life embodied the various archetypes outlined by Wolff.  The dream transformed my consciousness regarding these women and my inner relationships to the feminine archetypal forms.

Both books emphasize that a woman must not restrict herself to experiencing just one archetypal form.  Much like Jung’s writings on his Types, to fully individuate one must experience and broaden one’s access to the inner forms.  Wolff believed that Jung’s Types were more a masculine/cognitive schema of typology, while hers is more feminine/relational. However, because both men and women can heal through relationship, Wolff’s forms are useful to men as well as women, and can be used to understand a man’s anima.

In Wolff’s time, it was more likely that a woman’s outer life was restricted to personifying one of the inner forms.  Today, a modern woman has more choices and therefore these structural forms can manifest in a variety of ways.  As we help our patients to individuate we can conceptualize these feminine archetypes and discern where growth can occur so life is filled with vitality and connection.

Note: The publisher of Wolff’s Studien za C. G. Jungs Psychologie, Daimon Verlag, is working on an English translation due out in the next year or two.


For a New Beginning
by John O'Donahue
FoIn out-of-the-way places of the heart,
Where your thoughts never think to wander,
This beginning has been quietly forming,
Waiting until you were ready to emerge.

For a long time it has watched your desire,
Feeling the emptiness growing inside you,
Noticing how you willed yourself on,
Still unable to leave what you had outgrown.

It watched you play with the seduction of safety
And the gray promises that sameness whispered,
Heard the waves of turmoil rise and relent,
Wondered would you always live like this.

Then the delight, when your courage kindled,
And out you stepped onto new ground,
Your eyes young again with energy and dream,
A path of plenitude opening before you.

Though your destination is not yet clear
You can trust the promise of this opening;
Unfurl yourself into the grace of beginning
That is at one with your life’s desire.

Awaken your spirit to adventure;
Hold nothing back, learn to find ease in risk;
Soon you will be home in a new rhythm,
For your soul senses the world that awaits you.

O'Donahue, John (2008). "For a New Beginning". To Bless The Space Between Us: A Book of Blessings. New York: Doubleday.
Kim Arndt, MA is a Jungian Analsyt and speaker. She has a private practice in Mesa, Arizona. 
Philip Bechtel, MD is a Jungian Analyst, formerly a neurosurgeon. He has a private practice in Fort Worth, Texas.

Michael Escamilla, MD is a Jungian Analyst and Psychiatrist at the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center in El Paso, Texas.

Maureen O'Donnell, MA is a Jungian Analyst in private practice in Portland, Oregon.

Nancy Robinson-Kime, PhD is a Clinical Psychologist and Certified Jungian Analyst at the C.G. Jung Institute in Zürich. She has a private practice in Zurich.