A Further Look at Blind Side Reading
In toxicologic pathology, “Blind Slide Reading” involves procedures in which the pathologist is unaware of the treatment group status of individual animals during the histologic slide evaluation phase of a toxicologic bioassay. Blind slide reading continues to be a controversial topic, despite published recommendations on this subject authored by professional societies and governmental regulatory agencies (e.g., The Society of Toxicologic Pathology and the USFDA). The reason for this is understandable.

From the earliest days of their careers, scientists and statisticians are cautioned repeatedly about the perils of sampling and observational bias, and correctly so, because it is undeniable that such factors have the potential to adversely impact study findings. Consequently, randomized sampling and blinding procedures have become axiomatic in contemporary scientific research, and experimental designs routinely incorporate such measures to varying degrees. More

About the Authors

Jeffrey C. Wolf, DVM, Diplomate ACVP
CSO / Senior Pathologist 
    Phone: (703) 471-7060

B.S., Michigan State University (1980)
D.V.M., Michigan State University (1984)

Dr. Jeff Wolf joined EPL in 2000. Dr. Wolf’s key area of expertise is toxicologic pathology of aquatic animals, and for the past eight years, his principal focus has involved reproductive and thyroid endocrine disruption (EDC) studies that utilize various species of fish and frogs, including both native and laboratory specimens. Dr. Wolf has participated extensively in the development of guidelines for conducting EDC experiments, including the standardization of EDC diagnostic criteria and terminology. More


Kathleen A. Funk, DVM, Ph.D., Diplomate ACVP
COO / Senior Pathologist
    Phone: (703) 471-7060

B.S., College of William and Mary (1978)
D.V.M., Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine (1986)
Ph.D., University of California Davis (1993)

Dr. Kathleen Funk joined EPL in 1999. She has over 20 years of experience in toxicologic pathology. She has worked on a wide variety of toxicologic studies, including phenotypic analysis of transgenic animals and neurotoxicity studies. One area of expertise includes the evaluation of tissue reaction to biomedical devices, especially cardiovascular devices such as stents and grafts, in a variety of species. More


Profiled Team
Kathleen A. Funk, DVM, Ph.D., Diplomate ACVP
COO / Senior Pathologist
Peter C. Mann, DVM, Diplomate ACVP, Fellow IATP
Manager, EPL Northwest / Senior Pathologist

Jeffrey C. Wolf, DVM, Diplomate ACVP
CSO / Senior Pathologist 
Thomas J. Steinbach, DVM, Diplomate ACVP and ABT
Director, NC Laboratory / Senior Pathologist 
Paul W. Snyder, DVM, Ph.D., Diplomate ACVP, Fellow IATP 
Manager, EPL Midwest / Senior Pathologist

Ted Birkebak, DVM, Ph.D., Diplomate ACVP
Manager, EPL West Coast / Senior Pathologist 
Heath Thomas,  DVM, Ph.D, Diplomate ACVP
Senior Pathologist / Manager EPL Northeast

EPL History

Founded in 1971, Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc. (EPL®) is a private, employee-owned U.S. company that is recognized internationally for its ability to meet the needs of the scientific community and the challenges of preclinical safety testing with high quality, on-time histopathology services. EPL has become industry’s and government’s premier source for expert toxicologic pathology evaluation and consultation. More

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EPL's Toxicologic Pathology services are provided by a staff of 16 veterinary pathologists most of which are certified by the American College of Veterinary Pathologists (ACVP). Specialized pathology services are also offered and can be tailored to meet your research or regulatory objectives. More

Pathology Peer Review

EPL's experience in Pathology Peer Review improves the quality of the pathology data and narrative and can be achieved in several ways. A peer review can help to ensure that the data are presented in a manner that meets the requirements of the regulatory agency to which the data will be submitted. More

Pathology Working Groups

EPL pathologists have extensive experience in conducting and participating in Pathology Working Group (PWG) Reviews. PWGs, also known as Expert Panel Reviews, are often requested by regulatory agencies or other interested parties to resolve any differences of opinion ... More
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