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Dear beekeeper,

An article published recently demonstrates that the production of neurotransmitters in bees is substantially stimulated by manganese (Mn2+). Based on these findings, too much manganese (Mn2+) could play a role in the disappearance of bees.

Octopamine and dopamine
The article states that the amounts of octopamine and dopamine increase considerably in bees that have been administered extra Mn2+.

Octopamine is a neurotransmitter that is mainly found in insects. Octopamine has an important function in the allocation of tasks within the bee colony. It also plays a role in aggression. Dopamine is also a neurotransmitter, and has a range of functions.

Bacteria
The article only states that amounts of neurotransmitter increase due to Mn2+, but it does not explain exactly how this happens. Based on scientific publications, we consider it very plausible that this happens due to the increase in certain bacteria, which, for example, are found in the intestine. That neurotransmitters can be produced by intestinal bacteria is widely known in the medical sector.

Disappearing
Based on this information it can therefore be concluded that a bacterial-neurological problem is the underlying cause behind the disappearance of bees.

Incidentally, in August 2013 we issued a press release about the possible role of manganese in CCD. This recent publication supports this claim with details.

Ferro-Bee®
Ferro-Bee® can counter the negative effects of manganese. The manganese (Mn2+) is then substituted by the iron (Fe2+) in the Ferro-Bee®.

Read about manganese and bees here »

Read here the publication Negative impact of manganese on honeybee foraging »

Read here our press release »
What is Ferro-Bee®?
Ferro-Bee® is a ferrous formulation. It also contains components that promote iron absorption. Ferro-Bee® has been developed based on our fundamental scientific insights into the processes that cause bees die and disappear. Read more about Ferro-Bee® »
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